astro3 wrote:The Polish report was published in Zagadnien Nauk Sadowych but I don’t know what this is.
* Even according to the statements of pharmacist J.-C. Pressac, who, in the late 80s and early 90s, was promoted as the technical Holocaust expert, eyewitness testimonies relating to the engineering of the installations and their capacity are, almost without exception, untenable. But even the corrections to the testimonies considered by Pressac to be necessary do not go far enough to make them credible. In particular, the testimonies relating to the duration of executions in the 'gas chambers' (morgue 1) of crematoria II and III, as well as the ventilation times after the executions go completely awry. This is because of the over-estimation of the evaporation rate of hydrogen cyanide from the carrier of Zyklon B, as well as the incorrect concept of the effectiveness of the ventilation of the rooms. If the eyewitness testimonies relating to the quantities of Zyklon B used, and at least approximately relating to the rapidity of the execution procedure are to be accepted, then they are incompatible with testimonies, sometimes of the same witnesses, that the victims' corpses were removed from the 'gas chambers' immediately after the executions and without gas masks and protective garments. This is particularly true for those alleged 'gas chambers' without ventilation installations (crematoria IV and V and farmhouses I and II), since working in poorly ventilated 'gas chambers' with high concentrations of poison gas is impossible without gas masks. The extreme danger to the sweating workers of the Sonderkommando, who are supposed to have worked without protective garments, makes the witnesses untrustworthy. The eyewitness accounts are therefore completely contradictory, illogical, contrary to the laws of nature, and therefore incredible. The witnesses engage in particular contortions when it comes to the cremations (amount and kind of fuel used, speed of cremation, development of flames and smoke), which furthermore fail to accord with the analyses of aerial photography.
* The alleged installations for the mass murder of human beings are, in Pressac's judgment, impractical for their purpose, but were, on the contrary, illogically constructed in parts, so that they would not have been suitable as instruments of mass extermination. Once one considers the actual technical requirements, the impression remains of the total inadequacy of the installations in question-which were deficient to the point of uselessness-in gross contradiction to the technically advanced disinfestation chambers in the immediate vicinity. The facts set forth here with relation to Zyklon B introduction pillars in the ceilings of the 'gas chambers' (morgue 1) of crematoria I to III strengthen the suspicion of a subsequent manipulation almost to a certainty. These installations would have been even less suitable than crematoria IV and V. It would have been impossible to introduce the gas into them.
* Due to the proven, enormous environmental resistance of Iron Blue pigment, the slight cyanide traces in alleged homicidal 'gas chambers', which are demonstrable in places, but are not reproducible, cannot be explained on the basis of remaining residues of a disintegration process, since even on the weathered exterior side of the disinfestation wing large quantities of cyanide can be found even today. Towards the end of the operating period of the installations, therefore, the cyanide content must have been present in the same order of magnitude as it is today, as well as in the areas which were never exposed to weathering. But the cyanide values of protected areas in the alleged homicidal 'gas chambers' are just as low as in places exposed to weathering. Weathering has, therefore, not actually diminished these slight traces. The low cyanide values cannot be explained by fumigation of the premises for vermin, as postulated by Leuchter, since such fumigation would probably have left greater quantities of cyanide in the moist cellars of crematoria II and III. The cyanide values of the alleged homicidal 'gas chambers' lie in the same order of magnitude as the results, among others, of the samples taken by myself from parts of other buildings (hot air disinfestation Building 5a, inmates barracks, the washroom of crematorium I). These values, however, lie so near the detectable threshold that no clear significance can be attributed to them, most importantly due to their lack of reproducibility. From the above, one can safely conclude that no cyanide residues capable of interpretation can be found in the walls of the alleged homicidal 'gas chambers'.
It was further possible to show that, under the conditions of the mass gassings as reported by eyewitnesses in the alleged 'gas chambers' of crematorium II to V, cyanide residues would have been found in similar quantities, coloring the walls blue, as they can be found in the disinfestation wings of building 5a/b. Since no significant quantities of cyanide were found in the alleged homicidal 'gas chamber', one must conclude that these installations were exposed to similar conditions as the above mentioned other installations (hot air disinfestation, inmate barracks, washroom of crematorium I), i.e., that they most likely were never exposed to any hydrogen cyanide.
A. On chemistry
A: The investigation of the formation and stability of cyanide traces in masonry of the indicated structures as well as interpretation of the analytic results of samples of building material from these structures in Auschwitz show:
1. Cyanide reacting in masonry to produce Iron Blue is stable over periods of many centuries. It disintegrates on the same time scale as the masonry itself. Therefore, traces of cyanide should be detectable today in almost undiminished concentrations, regardless of the effects of weather. The outer walls of the delousing chambers BW 5a/b in Birkenau, which are deep blue and contain high concentrations of cyanide, are evidence of this.
2. Under the physically possible conditions of the mass-gassing of humans with hydrogen cyanide, traces of cyanide must be found in the same range of concentration in the rooms in question as they are found in the disinfestation structures, and the resulting blue discoloration of the walls should likewise be present.
3. In the walls of the supposed 'gas chambers' the concentrations of cyanide remnants are no higher than in any other building taken at random.
Conclusion to A:
On physical-chemical grounds, the mass gassings with hydrogen cyanide (Zyklon B) in the supposed 'gas chambers' of Auschwitz claimed by witnesses did not take place.
B: On building technology
The investigation of the events of alleged mass gassings in the indicated rooms claimed by witnesses, from a technical and practical standpoint, including physical-chemical analysis, showed:
1. The extensive documentation on the Auschwitz camp does not contain a single reference to execution 'gas chambers'; rather it refutes such suspicions.
2. The supposed main gas chambers of Auschwitz, the morgue hall of the crematorium in the main camp and the morgue cellars I ('gas chambers') of crematories II and III, did not have any means for the introduction of poison gas mixtures. Holes in the roofs visible today were made after the war, and all other cracks are the result of the building's destruction at the end of the war.
3. The release of lethal quantities of hydrogen cyanide from the Zyklon B carrier requires many multiples of the time asserted; the actual duration runs to several hours.
4. To provide the necessary ventilation for the supposed 'gas chambers' of crematories II and III would have taken many hours, contrary to all witness testimony.
5. It would have been impossible to provide an effective ventilation of the supposed 'gas chambers' of crematories IV or V or of farmhouses I and II. The corpses could not have been removed from the rooms and carried away by the Sonderkommando without protective garments and the use of gas masks with special filters.
Conclusion to B:
The procedures of mass-gassing as attested to by witnesses during their interrogation before various courts of law, as cited in judicial rulings, and as described in scientific and literary publications, in any building of Auschwitz whatever, are inconsistent with documentary evidence, technical necessities, and natural scientific law.
Germar Rudolf, Certified Chemist, in exile, on September 13, 2002.
Table of Content
1. Prelude, p. 11
1.1. Slow Death in U.S. Gas Chambers, p. 11
1.2. Hydrogen Cyanide—a Dangerous Poison, p. 15
1.3. The Acid that Causes Blue Stains, p. 20
2. The Coup, p. 23
2.1. Fred Leuchter on Auschwitz and Majdanek, p. 23
2.2. Damage Control, p. 26
3. The Origins, p. 29
3.1. On the Problem, p. 32
3.2. On Politics, p. 36
4. A Brief History of Forensic Examinations of Auschwitz, p. 39
4.1. Introduction, p. 39
4.2. The Moral Obligation of Forensic Examination, p. 39
4.3. A Definition of Forensic Science, p. 41
4.4. Forensic Science and Auschwitz, p. 42
4.4.1. Forensics in the Courts, p. 42
18.104.22.168. The 1946 Cracow Auschwitz Trial, p. 42
22.214.171.124. The 1964-1966 Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, S. 44
126.96.36.199. The 1972 Vienna Auschwitz Trial, p. 45
4.4.2. Forensics Outside the Courts, p. 46
188.8.131.52. In Search of Mass Graves, p. 46
184.108.40.206. Faurisson and the Consequences, p. 46
5. Auschwitz, p. 49
5.1. Introduction, p. 49
5.1.1. "Opera During the Holocaust, p. 49
5.1.2. On the History of the Camp, p. 51
5.2. Epidemics and the Defense Against them, p. 59
5.2.1. Danger of Epidemics, p. 59
5.2.2. Epidemic Control with Zyklon B, p. 60
5.2.3. Epidemic Control in Auschwitz, p. 65
220.127.116.11. Terminology Used and Responsibilities, p. 65
18.104.22.168. Procedures Used, p. 67
22.214.171.124. Results, p. 68
126.96.36.199. Basic Policy Decisions, p. 69
188.8.131.52. The Army Medical Officer, p. 70
184.108.40.206. Short-Wave Delousing Facility, p. 73
5.2.4. Disinfestation Installations BW 5a und 5b, p. 73
5.3. ‘Gas Chamber’ in the Auschwitz I Main Camp, p. 78
5.4. ‘Gas Chambers’ in Birkenau Camp, p. 88
5.4.1. Crematoria II and III, p. 88
220.127.116.11. Starting Situation, p. 88
18.104.22.168. The Obsessive Search for "Criminal Traces", p. 94
22.214.171.124.1. New Cellars Stairways, p. 95
126.96.36.199.2. Gassing Cellar, Undressing Room, and Showers, p. 96
188.8.131.52.3. "Gas-tight Doors" for Crematorium II, p. 103
184.108.40.206.4. Ventilation Installations, p. 107
220.127.116.11.5. Pre-heated Morgues, p. 108
18.104.22.168.6. "Cremation with Simultaneous Sonderbehandlung", p. 109
22.214.171.124.7. "Gas Testers" and "Indicator Devices for HCN Residues", p. 111
126.96.36.199.8. Zyklon B Introduction Holes, p. 113
188.8.131.52.9. Conclusions, p. 133
5.4.2. Crematoria IV and V, p. 135
5.4.3. Farmhouses 1 and 2, p. 139
5.4.4. The Drainage System in Birkenau, p. 141
184.108.40.206. Background: Eyewitness Accounts, p. 141
220.127.116.11. The Ground Water Table in Birkenau, p. 141
18.104.22.168. Open-Air Incineration in Pits, p. 143
5.5. Construction Conclusions, p. 145
6. Formation and Stability of Iron Blue, p. 151
6.1. Introduction, p. 151
6.2. Instances of Damages to Buildings, p. 152
6.3. Properties of Hydrogen Cyanide, HCN, p. 155
6.4. Composition of Iron Blue, p. 158
6.4.1. Overview, p. 158
6.4.2. Excursus, p. 158
6.5. Formation of Iron Blue, p. 159
6.5.1. Overview, p. 159
6.5.2. Water Content, p. 161
22.214.171.124. Overview, p. 161
126.96.36.199. Excursus, p. 161
6.5.3. Reactivity of Trivalent Iron, p. 163
188.8.131.52. Overview, p. 163
184.108.40.206. Excursus, p. 163
6.5.4. Temperature, p. 164
220.127.116.11. Overview, p. 164
18.104.22.168. Excursus, p. 167
6.5.5. pH Value, p. 168
6.6. Stability of Iron Blue, p. 170
6.6.1. pH Sensitivity, p. 170
6.6.2. Solubility, p. 171
22.214.171.124. Overview, p. 171
126.96.36.199. Excursus, p. 172
6.6.3. Excursus: Competing Ligands, p. 175
6.6.4. Effects of Light, p. 176
188.8.131.52. Overview, p. 176
184.108.40.206. Excursus, p. 176
6.6.5. Long-Term Test, p. 177
6.7. Influence of Various Building Materials, p. 180
6.7.1. Brick, p. 180
220.127.116.11. Overview, p. 180
18.104.22.168. Excursus, p. 181
6.7.2. Cement Mortar and Concrete, p. 181
22.214.171.124. Overview, p. 181
126.96.36.199. Excursus, p. 182
6.7.3. Lime Mortar, p. 185
6.7.4. Effects upon the Formation of Iron Blue, p. 185
7. Zyklon B for the Killing of Human Beings, p. 191
7.1. Toxicological Effect of HCN, p. 191
7.2. Evaporation Characteristics of Zyklon B, p. 194
7.3. The Gassing of Human Beings, p. 196
7.3.1. Eyewitness Testimonies, p. 196
188.8.131.52. Boundary Conditions, p. 196
184.108.40.206. Eyewitness Fantasies, p. 199
220.127.116.11. Quantities of Poison Gas, p. 208
18.104.22.168.1. Overview, p. 208
22.214.171.124.2. Excursus 1: Poisoning or Suffocation?, p. 211
126.96.36.199.3. Excursus 2: HCN Loss due to Adsorption, p. 216
7.3.2. Critique of the Eyewitness Descriptions, p. 218
188.8.131.52. Theatre of the Absurd, p. 218
184.108.40.206.1. Necessity of Co-Operation, p. 218
220.127.116.11.2. Failure to Separate the Sexes, p. 219
18.104.22.168.3. Towel and Soap, p. 220
22.214.171.124. Speed of Ventilation of the ‘Gas Chambers’, S. 220
126.96.36.199.1. Introduction, p. 220
188.8.131.52.2. Excursus, p. 220
184.108.40.206.3. Ventilation of the Morgues of Crematorium II and III, S. 223
220.127.116.11. Simulation Calculations, p. 227
18.104.22.168. Excursus: Capacity of Protective Filters, p. 230
7.3.3. Evaluation of Eyewitnesses, p. 233
7.3.4. An Expert on Cyanide Speaks Out, p. 238
7.3.5. Why Precisely Zyklon B?, p. 241
8. Evaluation of Chemical Analyses, p. 245
8.1. Test Sample Taking and Description, p. 245
8.2. Analytical Methods, p. 246
8.3. Evaluation of Analytical Results, p. 247
8.3.1. F.A. Leuchter/Alpha Analytic Laboratories, p. 247
8.3.2. Institute for Forensic Research, Cracow, p. 250
8.3.3. G. Rudolf/Fresenius Institute, p. 252
22.214.171.124. Samples 1-4: Crematorium II, Morgue 1, p. 253
126.96.36.199. Samples 5 to 8 and 23, 24: Inmate Barracks, p. 258
188.8.131.52. Samples 9 to 22: Disinfestation Building, S. 258
184.108.40.206. Samples 25-30: Tests, p. 265
8.3.4. John C. Ball, p. 268
8.4. Discussion of the Analysis Results, p. 269
8.4.1. Blue Wall Paint?, p. 269
8.4.2. False Method of Analysis, p. 270
8.4.3. The Memory Hole, p. 273
8.4.4. The Moon is Made of Pizza, p. 276
8.4.5. Anticipated Values, p. 279
8.4.6. Limits of the Chemical Method, p. 283
9. Conclusions, p. 287
10. Acknowledgements, p. 293
11. Hunting Germar Rudolf, p. 297
11.1. What Makes Revisionists?, p. 297
11.2. The Naiveté of a Young Revisionist, p. 316
11.3. Flaws of a State Under the Rule of Law, p. 330
11.4. Rudolf’s Thought ‘Crimes’, p. 345
11.5. The Media and the Case of Germar Rudolf, p. 383
11.6. Outlawed in the Federal Republic of Germany, p. 404
11.7. Biographical Notes on the Author, p. 421
12. Bibliography, p. 423
12.1. Monographs, p. 423
12.2. Periodical Articles, p. 428
12.3. Archival Documents, p. 434
12.4. Internet Documents, p. 434
12.5. Courts Files, Governmental Documents, p. 436
12.6. Video, Audio, and Unpublished Documents, p. 437
13.1. List of Tables, S. 439
13.2. List of Illustrations, p. 440
13.3. List of Graphs, p. 444
13.4. List of Abbreviations, p. 445
14. Index, p. 447
Voices of Scholars
astro3 wrote: One needs a re-analysis that measures both CN- bonded to iron (Leuchter, Rudolf and Ball ) and that not so bonded (Marciewicz et al), as well as, preferably, both ferrous and ferric iron and the Ph level (acid-alkali) of the samples.
... it is hard to accuse someone of a 'hate-crime' who is merely trying to clarify the iron-cyanide issue.
in 1994, Cracow's Institute for Forensic Research did a comprehensive study of the structures at Auschwitz identified as homicidal gas chambers. The Institute found traces of hydrocyanic acid, the poison gas used for mass murder, in the cellar of Block 11, the place identified by Höss as the site of the first gassing. Moreover, the Institute also found that there were low levels of such acid when compared to the other gassing sites, thus substantiating Höss's statement that Block 11 was abandoned early on as a gassing site because of unsuitability. The Institute also found hydrocyanic acid in Crematorium I, where Höss states that the gassing operations for Soviet POWs were moved to.
astro3 wrote:Also I tried to contact John Clive Ball in Canada who did his own chemical investigation of the cyanide in the walls: no London library seems to have a copy of his paper and Rudolf in his Report (p.246) says Ball didn't give enough details. If anyone knows how to contact these persons that would help.
We must plan for freedom, and not only for security, if for no other reason than that only freedom can make security secure.
Reason like science, grows by way of mutual criticism; the only possible way of planning its growth is to develop those institutions that safeguard…. the freedom of thought (2).
The buildings in Auschwitz which are pointed out to tourists as homicidal gas chambers, in which millions of Jews were allegedly killed, never came into contact with Zyklon B. (3)
astro3 wrote:For such a case to be established, three different hypotheses have to be refuted.
(1) That larger quantities of cyanide had to be used in the DCs because lice are harder to kill, thereby accounting for the higher concentrations.
(2) That the ‘Iron blue’ occurs in both types of wall, for some quite extraneous reason, and is not a result of wall impregnation with cyanide.
(3) That decades of rain have leeched out any cyanide from the broken-open AHGCs, the rain being acidic in nature, whereas the DCs have remained intact and so have not been thus exposed.
(DC- Delousing Chamber, AHGC – Alleged Human Gas Chamber)
The first of these positions was advocated at the Zundel trial, as to why Leuchter’s data should not lead to any such startling conclusion. It has been advocated since by Jacques Pressac. The second is advocated by Richard Green in his various web-articles. The third was propounded by the Polish report, commissioned by the Auschwitz museum.
Clearly, the enemies of the 'Open Society,' to use Karl Popper's language, will wish to stifle further debate on this matter.
The intense blue of the delousing chamber walls was, he came to realise, identical with the Prussian Blue in his paint-tube! Admire his photos in www.nazigassings.com/index2.html. Here is his comment:there simply was nothing there to cause me to believe it was not superbly designed and built and run to keep people alive and healthy under extremely difficult conditions.
‘The blue staining of the stucco and bricks in these photos is merely a subdued approximation of the extremely intense blue staining which is actually there. In reality, the blue staining matches the intense colour of Prussian blue pigment which is a well-known, synthetic dye made by reacting hydrocyanic acid with iron oxide. The same chemical process has obviously taken place here between the cyanide gas used in delousing and the iron oxide in red clay bricks. The staining of the stucco on the interior walls follows the outlines of the underlying bricks behind the stucco. Because of the erratic quality of the bricks, some bricks yield far more prussian blue pigment than others–hence the disparity in the intensities of the staining from brick to brick. What is especially surprising is the fact that the exterior walls show the same staining even after more than forty years of weathering. And, what is even more surprising and important is the fact that just a hundred yards away at Kremas 2 and 3, the exact same brick shows absolutely NO trace of blue staining anywhere--even in the cellar room remains where supposedly cyanide was used on a vast scale for mass murder. There is absolutely NO blue staining there anywhere.
It is hard to imagine the chemical reactions and physicochemical processes that could have led to the formation of Prussian blue in that space.
there is heavy blue staining on the walls both inside the delousing chambers, INSIDE the hallways between the delousing chambers, and OUTSIDE the building, on the EXTERIOR WALLS of the delousing facilities. However, the interiors of the Krema 1 gas chamber (Auschwitz Main Camp) and the Krema 2 and 3 gas chambers (Auschwitz-Birkenau), where hundreds of thousands if not millions of people are said to have been gassed, show only minute traces of Zyclon B and no blue staining. Also, the Auschwitz camp barracks and offices, which were fumigated with the Zyklon B from time to time, show similarly minute traces of the gas, and no blue staining.
What explanation can there be for the low levels of traces, and absence of blue staining, in the ‘homicidal gas chambers’? If one suggests that the Zyklon traces in the homicidal gas chambers have been "weathered away", how can one explain the traces and staining on the OUTSIDE of the delousing complexes...traces which have NOT been weathered away after fifty years?
The latter point is used in certain sceptical arguments, which we may come onto.On many of the walls at the Leichenkeller and at the delousing stations, one could clearly see scratches in the walls which I suspected were from Leuchter's sampling of the walls--but, I could not be sure of that. Those scratches are visible in some of my photos of the delousing station walls--in some of the most intensely blue areas which suggests some bias on the part of the scratchers.
One of the most famous and special pigments is Prussian Blue which has an extraordinarily intense, unique quality. No other blue pigment can match it. You can go to any art supply store and purchase some Prussian Blue for yourself and you will quickly see why--and then compare it also with any other blue paint or pigment. When I actually saw the blue staining of the delousing station walls, exterior as well as interior, I knew this could only have been from the cyanide molecule that is Prussian blue.
Das Rudolf Gutachten: Gutachten über die Bildung und Nachweisbarkeit von Cyanidverbindungen in den "Gaskammern" von Auschwitz
astro3 wrote:His earliest publication was a letter in the Junge Freiheit in 1990 (‘a small right-wing monthly newspaper’) criticising ‘sloppy errors’ in The Leuchter Report. An English translation of this letter would be of value here
I myself would, admittedly, have preferred to see more rigorous methods used in identifying and certifying the samples taken for analysis, but I accept without reservation the difficulties that the examining team faced on location in what is now Poland: chiselling out the samples from the hallowed site under the very noses of the new camp guards. The video tapes made simultaneously by the team -- which I have studied -- provide compelling visual evidence of the scrupulous methods that they used.