The Soviet Union's documented use of document forgeries, Active Measures

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The Soviet Union's documented use of document forgeries, Active Measures

Postby Lamprecht » 1 week 6 days ago (Sat Feb 09, 2019 11:42 pm)

As far as I know, the US government, which was totally on-board with the Holocaust propaganda myth, never acknowledged that any of the ridiculous documents submitted against the Germans after WWII were "forgeries" -- in later reports, however, the US government has confirmed the willingness of Soviet officials to produce document forgeries.

First, we must understand what "Active Measures" (активные мероприятия) means. "Active Measures" was the actions of political warfare conducted by USSR secret service (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB, FSB) to influence world events, in addition to collecting intelligence. Beginning in the 1920s, it was used both abroad and domestically and included "all sorts of forgeries and faked material" (according to former KGB general Oleg Kalugin) as well as propaganda, disinformation, counterfeiting, assasinations, political repression, and other methods.


A good source of general information on "Active Measures" here is:

Prepared Statement of GEN (Ret) Keith B. Alexander on Disinformation: A Primer in Russian Active Measures and Influence Campaigns (March 30, 2017) before the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
https://archive.is/6LQVL or PDF: https://web.archive.org/web/20190109011 ... 033017.pdf

Example forgeries from "Soviet Influence Activities: A Report on Active Measures and Propaganda, 1986 - 87"
https://web.archive.org/web/20190208115 ... s-1987.pdf

As well as KGB defector Yuri Bezmenov, especially the psychological warfare (brainwashing / ideological subversion) aspect:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3qkf3bajd4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gnpCqsXE8g
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6lksJhBvas


In 1980, the CIA presented a lengthy, detailed report to congress about the USSR's efforts against the U.S and cited some 150 anti-American document forgeries, usually with official-looking stationery and supposedly signed by top U.S. officials. It "conservatively" estimated that the USSR spent $3 billion per year on such propagand and covert actions. Here is an excerpt from the Testimony of John McMahon, Deputy Director for Operations, Central Intelligence Agency, which can be found at the following link:

CIA on FM 30-31B - Soviet Covert Action (the Forgery Offensive)
https://archive.is/RPcNx

Active measures encompass a range of activities, the most important of which include the following: written and oral "disinformation"; forgeries, false rumors; "gray,": unattributed; and "black": falsely attributed propaganda; manipulation and control of foreign media assets, manipulative political action and the use of "agents-of-influence" operations, clandestine radio stations, use of foreign Communist Parties and international front groups for pursuing Soviet foreign policy objectives, support for international revolutionary and terrorist organizations, the so-called national liberation movements, and even political blackmail and kidnaping.
...
One of the major weapons the Soviets have chosen to use in intensifying ideological struggle and advance their foreign policy objectives at the same time is the use of forged documents. The increase of such forgeries in recent years is discussed in detail in the study I am submitting to the subcommittee, but I would like to summarize for you some of the findings of that study because of the scope and magnitude of the current forgeries effort, and because of the subcommittee's expressed interest in the subject.

It is an established Soviet practice to employ forgeries in covert action and psychological warfare operations against the United States. Of the some 150 anti-American forgeries produced by the Soviet Union and its East European allies in the postwar period, the most damaging ones have been fabrication of official-looking government documents and communiques. The Soviets also have manufactured personal letters which were allegedly written by U .S. officials and which purport to contain information regarding official policy. Previous studies prepared for the Congress by the Central Intelligence Agency documented 46 examples of Soviet and bloc forgeries which came to our attention from 1957 to 1965.




From a 1988 report to US Congress:
Characteristics of Soviet Forgeries

Forgeries have long been a staple tool of Soviet active measures operations. They are produced by Service A of the KGB’s First Chief Directorate. Forgeries attributable to the Soviet bloc can be distinguished from the efforts of individual forgers by the following telltale characteristics.

Soviet-produced forgeries commonly use official letterheads of the U.S. government or other organizations, and frequently carry security classifications. An intelligence organization like the KGB is able to procure a great many official forms, letterheads, official signatures, and so on, which can be used to construct a forgery using “cut-and-paste techniques. It is known that the Soviet bloc countries make an assiduous effort to collect such material.

The use of security classifications is common because it enhances the believability and sensationalistic appeal of forgeries. Unclassified but “confidential” correspondence between high-ranking or influential individuals has a similar appeal.

Soviet forgeries typically surface as copies of the purported documents, not as originals. The use of photocopies makes the job of the forger easier, as it enables him to utilize “cut-and-paste” techniques with official U.S. government or other forms. It also makes it impossible to do a pen and ink analysis of the original. Similarly, Soviet forgeries are often out-of-focus or smaller than full size, which also impedes forensic analysis.

...The question of “who benefits” from the forgery is key. The content of Soviet forgeries is typically such that if they were believed, the targets of the forgery would be inclined to act in a way that is contrary to U.S. interests.

Finally, the accusations in Soviet-produced forgeries are often either vague or related to supposedly secret matters, which makes it more difficult for rebuttals by the U.S. government to remove all doubt in the minds of those who may be inclined to be give credence to the forgery.
https://archive.is/Adznl


Of course, the above information was procured by the US government for the purpose of exposing anti-American forgeries by the Soviet Union, but it shows us how invested the Soviets were in producing forgeries.


Also some notes on forged documents from "Holocaust or Hoax" by Jürgen Graf:

Let us consider below some of the "documentary proofs" for the Holocaust repeatedly trundled out for us in the standard literature. We will divide these into two groups: obvious forgeries, documents of questionable authenticity, and, finally, undoubtedly genuine, but deliberately falsely interpreted documents.

Forged documents

In contrast to the attitude of some revisionists, only relatively few of the documents which are presented as proofs of the extermination of the Jews are obvious falsifications. These include three remarkable examples, which we will examine as follows:

a) The Wannsee Protocol

For decades, it was claimed that the extermination of the Jews was decided at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin of 20 January 1942. Anyone who reads the (alleged) protocol of that conference (17), will discover that it contains no mention of any physical extermination of the Jews, nothing about gas chambers, and speaks only of "evacution" and "resettlement". The orthodox historians, as usual, offer the lazy excuse that these are code words for extermination.

Even if this document were genuine, it would in no way constitute proof for any extermination of the Jews, but rather for their deportation, which is not disputed by any revisionist. But the Wannsee Protocol is a rather crude forgery, as shown by several revisionist researchers, in greatest detail by Johannes P. Ney (18). The forgery is proven by absuridities of content (for example grossly exaggerated numbers of Jews living in Europe), as well as formal errors.

30 copies of the Wannsee Protocol are supposed to have been prepared. Of these 30 copies, only 1, the 16th, has survived, quite remarkably, in several different versions, in which SS is written sometimes in runes, and sometimes in normal script.

Even the exterminationists are distancing themselves further and further from the Wannsee protocol. In the Canadian Jewish News of 20 January 1992, Israeli Holocaust Specialist Yehuda Bauer, calls the belief that the conference arrived at any decision to exterminate the Jews, a "silly story". According to him, the whole caste of historians just blabbered a silly story for decades, like parrots. The "silly story" also appears in all schoolbooks.

b) The document of 28 June 1943 on the capacity of the crematoria of Auschwitz

To prove the powerful capacity of the Auschwitz crematoria, the exterminationists tirelessly quote a letter allegedly prepared on 28 June 1943 by the leader of the Auschwitz Central Construction Administration, Bischoff, through his subordinate SS Brigadefuehrer Kammler (19), according to which the daily capacity of the crematoria of Auschwitz and Birkenau are as follows:

- crematory I: 340 persons [sic!] each

- crematoria II and III: 1440 persons each

- crematoria IV and V: 768 persons each.

Note the remarkably un-German-sounding use of the word "persons" in this connection. Much more revealing, however, is the content.

As may be seen from the standard literature, for example the work of Raul Hilberg (20), the main crematorium at Auschwitz I possessed 6 muffles; crematoria II and III of Birkenau possessed 15 muffles each; and the Birkenau Kremas IV and V possessed 8 muffles each. This makes a total of 52 muffles. In today's modern crematoria, the burning of one corpse per muffle takes one to one and a half hours (see illustration 1V, the reproduction of a letter from Freiburg crematorium). If one can cremate 4,756 bodies per day in 52 muffles, that would be 95 bodies per day per muffle, which would mean that the crematoria of Auschwitz were around four times faster than modern crematoria! This means that either all the laws of thermodynamics were suspended, or that the letter is a fabrication (presumably from a Communist forgery factory). Irrefutable proof of the falsity of this document has been provided by Carlo Mattogno (21).
From: http://www.vho.org/GB/Books/hoh/chap8.html


Another example is document USSR-54, the only forensic report ever introduced into evidence at Nuremberg, where the USSR blamed their own atrocity in the Katyn forest on the "German Fascist Invaders"

KATYN: How the Soviets Manufactured 'War Crime' Documents (translation of USSR-54) by C.W.Porter
https://archive.is/k9Ere

At the time, the US government even helped them cover up the Soviet atrocity at Katyn:
https://archive.is/qrANs



Some related threads:


Forged Documents at the IMT Nuremberg Trial
viewtopic.php?t=8635

Proven Forgeries
viewtopic.php?t=6134


"There is a principal which is a bar against all information, which is proof against all arguments, and which cannot fail to keep a man in everlasting ignorance -- that principal is contempt prior to investigation."
-- Herbert Spencer

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Re: The Soviet Union's documented use of document forgeries, Active Measures

Postby Lamprecht » 1 week 5 days ago (Sun Feb 10, 2019 4:48 pm)

Some more info on Soviet document forgeries

From: http://insidethecoldwar.org/sites/defau ... 201983.pdf
mirror: https://web.archive.org/web/20181030204 ... 201983.pdf

SOVIET ACTIVE MEASURES: FOCUS ON FORGERIES

April 1983

For many years forgeries have been a staple of Soviet "active measures." In the post-World War II period, the Soviets and their allies, especially Czechoslovakia and East Germany, have repeatedly distributed false documents to mislead target audiences. In testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee in 1961, U.S. officials identified 31 documents as communist forgeries.1 A former Czech intelligence officer, Ladislav Bittman, who defected in 1968, has described how forged documents are prepared and disseminated.2 In 1980, the House Select Committee on Intelligence publicized anumber of forgeries which circulated in the 1970s.3 Congressional hearings in 1982 placed additional cases of political forgeries on the record.4 This study examines communist techniques for producing forgeries and a number of fabrications which have come to light in 1982.
...
The Soviets go to considerable effort to collect useful forms, letters, official signatures, and the like as models for their efforts. (Fig. 7 reproduces a forged Department of Defense press release.) While the Soviets produce authentic-looking documents in many cases, there are almost always small discrepancies and mistakes. Government forms and procedures frequently change; for them to be duplicated with total accuracy, a detailed knowledge-difficult for an outsider to achieve-is required.
...
Forgeries are distributed in the form of photocopies. This facilitates "cutting and pasting" so that signatures and letterheads from authentic documents can be combined with a fabricated text. The letter supposedly sent from Aviation Personnel International to the South African Air Force (Fig. 6) was prepared this way; the model was a circular business letter from the company offering its placement services to prospective customers
This US State Department report mentions some "Holocaust papers" that are proven forgeries, but it's actually a bogus pamphlet outlining US plans for nuclear war in Europe -- nothing to do with the alleged nazi holocaust.



From a 18 SEPT 95, report by the CIA:

Case study of how the Sino-Soviet Bloc intelligence services provide black support for overt psychological warfare themes
https://archive.is/wQ0Jc
There is nothing new about the use of forged documents in the psychological warfare operations of the Sino-Soviet Bloc intelligence services, especially in pursuit of particular aims within a single country; West Germany, for example, has been flooded with them for years. But the years 1957 and 1958 saw a noticeable increase in internationally distributed propaganda-by-forgery supporting the general Bloc objectives of discrediting the United States and other Western countries and of promoting division in the West. For these two years and the first half of 1959, 18 such forgeries surfaced in facsimile have been discovered, and a number of other instances wherein the text of a purported document was quoted without attempt at reproduction or a document was at least falsely reported to exist makes a total of 32 cases available for study from this period.





They even forged "virtually all public maps" of the USSR, according to the chief cartographer:
Soviet Aide Admits Maps Were Faked for 50 Years

The Soviet Union's chief cartographer acknowledged today that for the last 50 years the Soviet Union had deliberately falsified virtually all public maps of the country, misplacing rivers and streets, distorting boundaries and omitting geographical features, on orders of the secret police.
...
The falsification of Soviet maps, Mr. Yashchenko told Izvestia, began in the late 1930's when the map-making administration was put under control of the security police, then known as the N.K.V.D.

''Even in the post-Stalin time the distortion of generally available maps continued as a requirement of the work of our administration,'' he said. ''This work became senseless with the appearance of space photography,'' which meant foreign countries could make their own extremely accurate maps from satellite data. ''But nevertheless it continued until this year,'' he said.
https://archive.is/Qvcow




FBI Report: Soviet Union Likely Forged Key Demjanjuk Evidence

1985 document exposed by AP says KGB may have doctored photo ID used against man suspected to be notorious Sobibor death camp guard 'Ivan the Terrible.'

An FBI report kept secret for 25 years said the Soviet Union "quite likely fabricated" evidence central to the prosecution of John Demjanjuk - a revelation that could help the defense as closing arguments resume Wednesday in the retired Ohio auto worker's Nazi war crimes trial in Germany.
https://archive.is/twSGa
"There is a principal which is a bar against all information, which is proof against all arguments, and which cannot fail to keep a man in everlasting ignorance -- that principal is contempt prior to investigation."
-- Herbert Spencer

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Re: The Soviet Union's documented use of document forgeries, Active Measures

Postby Lamprecht » 1 week 1 day ago (Fri Feb 15, 2019 12:07 am)

It's starting to seem that, by default, virtually all Soviet documents must be presumed unreliable until established otherwise :lol:



From an October 1981 Department of State report on "Active Measures"
Soviet "Active Measures"
Forgery, isinformation, Political Operations
October 1981

The following paper was prepared by the Department of State in response to requests for information from a number of individuals, private groups, and foreign governments

Forgeries. Soviet forgeries-completely fabricated or altered versions of actual documents-are produced and circulated to mislead foreign governments, media, and public opinion. Recent Soviet forgeries are better and appear more frequently than in the past. Among forgeries that Soviet agents have produced and distributed are bogus U.S. military manuals and fabricated war plans designed to create tensions between the United States and other countries. In some cases, the Soviets used actual documents passed to the KGB by U.S. Army Sergeant Robert Lee Johnson (who was eventually arrested and convicted as a Soviet agent) as models for style and format in Soviet forgeries. In one case, Soviet agents, seeking to disrupt NATO theater nuclear force modernization, circulated a forged "top secret" letter from Secretary of State Cyrus Vance to another Western foreign minister.

The Soviet Union continues to make extensiveuse of ìactive measuresî to achieve its foreignpolicy objectives, to frustrate those of othercountries, and to undermine leadership in manynations. On the basis of the historical record,there is every reason to believe that the Sovietleadership will continue to make heavyinvestments of money and manpower inmeddlesome and disruptive operations aroundthe world.

While Soviet "active measures" can be exposed, as they have often been in the past, the Soviets are becoming more sophisticated, especially in forgeries and political influence operations. Unless the targets of Soviet "active measures" take effective action to counter them, these activities will continue to trouble both industrialized and developing countries.
https://archive.is/yb0AA




Another good general source on general information (from USA perspective of course):

Soviet Active Measures in the "Post-Cold War" Era 1988-1991
A Report Prepared at the Request of the United States House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations by the United States Information Agency
June 1992
See: http://intellit.muskingum.edu/russia_fo ... #Forgeries






The 1983 book "The KGB and Soviet Disinformation" by Ladislav Bittman, retired professor of disinformation at Boston University & former Czechoslovak intelligence officer, has an entire chapter devoted to the topic. Entitled "The Art of Forgery" (chapter 5).

Some excerpts from the book:
An operation designed in the spring of 1964 under the cover name “Neptune” and conducted in cooperation with the KGB became a test case of the new department’s operational skills and imagination. One night during the last week of May 1964, I plunged into Bohemia’s Black Lake and carefully placed four large asphalt-coated cases on the bottom. Several weeks later, the cases were “discovered” by a Czechoslovak television team shooting a documentary film on legends involving the lake. The find was presented to the public as an important set of Nazi archives. It marked the beginning of an extensive disinformation action against West Germany, and it was evaluated in Moscow as one of the most successful operations of that period.

Original Nazi documents from Soviet and Czechoslovak archives were presented to the press as documents recovered from the Black Lake and were used in Italy, France, Austria, and West Germany to compromise certain individuals and damage West Germany’s public image. Although the operation did not convince the West European public that the present-day regime in West Germany was a practical and ideological outgrowth of Nazi Germany, it contributed to the decision by the West German government to extend the statute of limitations for the prosecution of war crimes.

Under direct Soviet supervision, the Czechoslovak disinformation department during the next few years designed hundreds of games against the United States, improved old deception techniques, and developed new ones. When Ivan I. Agayants, the commanding officer of the Soviet disinformation department, visited Prague in 1965, he congratulated Czech subordinates on their successes and emphasized the need to strengthen coordination among the Warsaw Pact intelligence services.

...

Chapter 5: The Art of Forgery

Intelligence analysts in the United States from 1945 to 1980 have traced the origins of 150 fakes planted to harm this country. 7 This is an impressive figure, but it is only a fraction of the total. Many forgeries are undetected because they are not widely circulated but are slipped, instead, into the flow of global communication to deceive governments and individuals without alerting the press.

Even the frequency with which counterfeits appear on the world scene can be significant. For example, during the month preceding the abortive May 1960 summit meeting between the United States and the Soviet Union in Paris, the Soviet leadership ordered a reduction in such operations. Thus, only two fakes surfaced from March 1959 through May 1960, but production returned to normal with the collapse of the summit. A similar pattern emerged during the period of detente with the Russians in the early 1970s. CIA analysts positively confirmed the “authenticity” of only one anti-American fabrication between late 1971 and December 1976. The atmosphere of rapprochement had prompted the Soviet Union to scale down the most provocative cold-war style operations and use more subtle techniques of subversion. But the Russians kept a lid on anti-American fakes for another reason. Their counterfeits could not outclass the investigations of the Watergate era...

When the Watergate phenomenon began to fade in late 1976, deception experts in Eastern Europe returned to their forgeries. Although America remained the “main enemy,” they set their sights on the Middle East and Western Europe...

Forgeries, particularly the most recent publications, are classified in two major categories. The first category includes misleading information (disinformation) that contributes to poor policy decisions among government leaders, This type of fake usually does not require or receive widespread attention of the media. The second type, propagandistic forgery seeks to mold public opinion in a target country. Information is leaked to the media in the selected nation, and, if journalists bite the bait and distribute the message, the KGB builds a propaganda campaign around the phony idea. Propagandistic forgeries take a number of different forms: leaflets in the name of nonexistent organizations, counterfeit pamphlets circulated to key individuals and groups, facsimiles and subtle alterations of official publications, reproduction and shading of entire issues of newspapers and magazines, fake personal letters, and phony bank statements. Even duplicate best-sellers have been offered to publishing houses...

PROVING THE AMERICAN EVIL

The most important type of forgery by the Soviet bloc is the authentic-appearing “official” government document. If a politician in a West European country becomes too anti-Soviet or an African leader too pro-American, the easiest way to undermine his reputation is to label him a CIA agent and use a forgery as proof. Although the victim denies the accusation, the residuum of suspicion usually remains. Some forgeries circulate for years, even decades, and resurface again and again in different parts of the world. They frequently cause as much damage when they reemerge as they caused
originally...

[S]potting a suspicious document can be difficult, since there is usually no direct evidence that a document originates in Eastern Europe. Analysts must rely on such circumstantial evidence as format, content, style, and the usual methods employed by the secret services in the Soviet bloc. To produce forgeries with the “core of reality” typical of the late 1970s requires highly skilled and experienced agents. A fabricator must have firsthand examples of classified documents and stationery of the U.S. government and must follow foolproof handling procedures. (Photostats are often used to improve chances that a forgery will pass as genuine because the typeface is more difficult to analyze). Most important, the pseudodocument must at least appear to reflect American foreign policy. Few organizations in the world possess the necessary knowledge, materials, experience, and infrastructure for covert action to conduct sophisticated forgery operations. The only organizations with obvious malice toward the United States are based in Eastern Europe. There is no reliable evidence that the Soviets have any significant competition in the use of forged documents as vehicles of disinformation or black propaganda. The People’s Republic of China refrains from the tactic, and various leftist organizations, such as the Red Brigades or the Palestine Liberation Organization, simply do not have the resources to produce and disseminate quality forgeries.
Full text: https://archive.org/details/sovietdisinformation2



That story above is real, "Operation Neptune" -- and is described here on Wikipedia:
Operation Neptune (espionage)

Operation Neptune was a 1964 disinformation operation by the Czechoslovak secret service, the StB, involving Nazi-era documents.

In 1964, the StB publicly claimed to have discovered Nazi-era intelligence files hidden beneath the surface of Černé jezero, a lake in the Šumava, on the border with West Germany. The four chests containing the papers were supposedly discovered during the making of a documentary, in the presence of members of the Western press. In fact the agency itself had placed them there, in collaboration with the KGB.[1][2]

The papers were possibly genuine,[3] although former Czechoslovak spy Josef Frolík described them in his 1975 memoirs as forgeries.[4] However, their apparent discovery was a disinformation operation, the largest conducted by the agency; in fact the papers found in the sunken chests, which had been carefully doctored to appear as if they had been submerged since World War II, were not the real documents, which were only later brought from the Soviet Union.[2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation ... (espionage)
"There is a principal which is a bar against all information, which is proof against all arguments, and which cannot fail to keep a man in everlasting ignorance -- that principal is contempt prior to investigation."
-- Herbert Spencer


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