I put here a post that I have been sending regularly on alt.revisionism
I made it quickly but I think that it could constitute a valuable basis to a deeper investigation. The numbers of the populations at the camps I mention were picked from official sites on the net. They need to be accurately sourced. The population actually planed at A-B is another important point to be correctly addressed. I found in Pressac's book the number of 200,000 and some other official source (Van Pelt?) cite 230,000.
Another point, which is not clear to me, is the alleged discovering of documents which would confirm the coke deliveries at the crematoriae of A-B corresponding to the year 1944 by Irving. That year is not mentioned on the records presented by Pressac I use (years 1941 to 1943).
I would like to know more about that Irving's finding. That would allow to have a more accurate estimation of the number of cadavers actually burned at A-B.
According with David Irving, documents form the Moscow's archives give the following numbers as deliveries of coke to Auschwitz-Birkenau crematories:
I - V......15.03.43/31.10.43.....568,0
II - III...01.01.44/27.11.44......923,0
By using my parameter of an average of 28,7 kg of coke per corpse burned that would imply a total of 76,236 cadavers.
Now, the complement of wood or other fuel that could have been eventually employed at the crematories must be addressed also.
Another aspect that must be stressed, is that when the requirement for more muffles was made, at the same time SS ordered also Zentral Sauna as a complementary measure of fighting epidemics. Not to mention it just was after experiencing hard attacks of typhus at the camp few months ago. That reinforces the fact that crematoriae were integrated at the camps since 1942 as part of sanitary installation.
Previous typhus attacks explain why SS had to put their camp at the standard recommended for cremation installations.
An interesting matter of research is on the criteria and parameters used by the engineers to design the camps. As for current constructions involving the hosting of numerous people (stadium, fairs, etc...) they are standards of construction e.g. the number of latrines. So, it could be important to know if such documents are still available for A-B or other large camps like Dachau, Buchenwald or Oranienburg.
Aren't such documents in the numerous archives of the Zentral Bauleitung of A-B?
CREMATION AT NAZI CAMPS
A - Why did nazis cremate the bodies of the deaths?
German concentration camps did really exist but the whole world knows that they were
not original or unique to the Germans. Crematorium ovens have also existed in certain
of these camps, but incineration is no more offensive or criminal than burial. The
crematorium ovens even constitute progress from the sanitary point of view where
there was a risk of epidemics. Typhus ravaged the whole of wartime Europe. The
majority of corpses which are shown to us in photos are clearly the corpses of typhus
victims. These photos illustrate the fact that the internees-and sometimes the
guards-died of typhus. They prove nothing other than this. To exploit the fact that
the Germans at times used crematorium ovens is not very honest. In asserting this one
counts on the repulsion or feeling of unease and disquiet felt by people accustomed
to burial and not to incineration. Imagine an oceanic population accustomed to
burning its dead. Tell such a people that you bury your own and you will appear a
kind of savage. Perhaps they would even suspect that in Europe persons "more or less
alive" are placed in the earth!
Since the typhus epidemics occurrence after 1942, all corpses might be cremated as a
part of necessary prophylactic measures and crematoriae passed to be mandatory basic
installations at all the main nazi camps.
Crematory buildings (Krematorium) were copied from civilian installations in use at
that time in Germany.
They included basically morgues and ovens. The furnaces were also designed like
civilian models, nothing specific to criminal purpose.
On the opposite there were not properly model to industrial burning (massive burning)
because, as being civilian, they were tiny muffles planned to burn corpses by unit
and to recuperate ashes for the family into a receptacle placed below the burning
On the plan of Krema I at Auschwitz I a room dedicated to store urns as receptacles
of ashes is visible.
The main manufacturer contracted by the SS to equip their camps passed to be the
civilian firm Topf & Söhne. H Kori, the former main supplier, had lost importance but
represented a rough competitor for Topf. For instance, to take the Birkenau's market,
Prüfer, the Topf's engineer had to "invent" an innovative configuration of more
muffles per furnace in order to present a more cost effective offer and convince the
new head of the Zentral Bauleitung ("Construction Management") at Auschwitz, SS
Captain Karl Bischoff, to get the contract.http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0095.htm
B - How was planed the capacity of cremation to be installed at nazi camps?
Pressac didn't write too much on that fundamental point, the documents that should
exist regarding the planing of equipment from the scratch are not exhibited on his
books. So, the observation of the installations of cremation in use at the main camps
is necessary to deduce the parameters SS seem to have applied to determine their
From such observation, it appears that SS have used a standard ratio of 1 muffle
installed per 4,500-5,000 inmates hosted. For instance, we can observe a ratio of
4,500 at Oranienburg and 5,000 at Birkenau to an expected population of 230,000 which
was planed in August 1942 but was never reached (67,000 to 130,000 maximum). See
C - Was a cremation installation an evidence of criminal intention at nazi camps?
The same model of furnaces provided by the manufacturer Topf & Söhne can be found
at Gusen, Mauthausen, Dachau, Oranienburg, Gusen or Buchenwald which are not labeled
"extermination camps" on the Dogma. Only the combination [number of furnaces x number
of muffles] could have changed while the basic muffle's design remained the same
following a civilian design.
There, the cremation buildings presented nearly the same basic configuration: morgues
+ ovens as on civilian model of construction existing at that time in Germany.
Actually, by observing all the main nazi camps, it is impossible to find a specific
installation which could differentiate an alleged "extermination camp" from a
"concentration camp", a point able to allow a reasonable doubt about the actual
existence of specific "industrial factories" supposedly built to perform an
"industrial extermination plan". I developed the "gas chambers" matter at Auschwitz
on other posts.
A blueprint of the standard model of Topf's oven was presented at Nuremberg trial as
an "evidence" of a criminal action. That cannot be sustained anymore.
"Historically, it is no longer possible to present this Nuremberg drawing [drawing of
a furnace] as being “criminal”. Produced entirely without any supporting documentary
context, as were many German documents at that time, this drawing was supposed to
prove “ipso facto” the criminality of KL Buchenwald, whereas in fact it was only a
pictorial representation of a perfectly ordinary piece of “public health” equipment.
Whether used as incriminating evidence or not, the fact that this drawing was
retained, certainly with a covering letter whose content is not known, shows the
stupid way in which the documents of the defeated were “evaluated” by a tribunal of
the victors. It is just as ridiculous as if in the Landru trial the prosecution had
presented a catalogue of harmless kitchen ranges and declared that this brochure was
obvious proof of the crimes of the accused, and had omitted to mention the purchase
of the railway tickets: one return [for Landru] and one single [for his lady victim]."http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0106.htm
D - Establishment of cremation's parameters for Topf's ovens.
An important document allows to analyze on real working conditions and during a
sufficiently long period the actual activity of cremation at Gusen with a model of
Topf's oven built with 2 furnaces x 2 muffles.http://www.holocaust-history.org/gusen- ... ndex.shtml
It can be deduced from that time sheet that, into 1 muffle, an average time of 23 min
per corpse was needed to burn 61 corpses per day in an hypothesis of extrapolated
continuous performance not recommended by the manufacturer.
Actually, to avoid refractory failures, a maximum of 8 to 10 hours of work was
possible. (see Hoess statement: "After eight or ten hours of operation, the
crematoria were unfit for further use. It was impossible to keep them in continuous
operation."http://www.fpp.co.uk/Auschwitz/Osteurop ... eyer2.html
However, in my opinion, that factor time is not of major relevance to estimate the
actual activity of the ovens. To me, the coke or wood consumption is the most
relevant and objective parameter to obtain a consistent estimation of the number of
corpses which could have been burned at a camp.
On that aspect, the same time sheet of Gusen gives an average coke's consumption of
28.7 kg (28.72 kg) per corpse in hypothetical conditions of continuous use.
"Hypothetical" means that the real values observed were extrapolated to an improbable
work on 24 h/24 h. That same time sheet shows that the average of corpses burned
daily during the period considered was about 21 (1009 corpses burned in 48 days)
That represented 17.21% of the capacity installed which is far from being a 24h/24h
load to a maximum capacity of cremation of 122 bodies per day in 2 muffles.
Such remark makes highly dubious all kind of calculations based on a hypothetical
"maximum capacity" of such installations to evaluate their actual performance.
E - Can cremation's parameters observed at Gusen be applied at Birkenau?
By their conception, the ovens installed by Topf at Gusen (2 furnaces x 2 muffles)
were theoretically less demanding in coke than similar models installed at Birkenau.
Actually, Krema II and III had 5 ovens of 2 furnaces x 3 muffles and Krema IV and V
had 2 ovens of 2 furnaces x 4 muffles).
The configuration of less furnaces to heat more muffles was interesting under an
economic point of view but resulted in less efficient because of increased thermal
losses. Each furnace had more refractory lining to heat and to maintain around a
working temperature of 800-1000ºC. So, the average of 28,7 kg of coke per body
calculated at Gusen can be perfectly applied at Birkenau despite it could be expected
slightly inferior to the actual consumption because of the less thermal efficiency of
F - Was it possible to overpass the nominal efficiency of Topf's ovens?
The allegation that the cremation's performance could have been highly improved by
burning several cadavers (simultaneous cremation) instead of one in a muffle's cavity
designed to burn one corpse only is at least reckless.
In fact, as being an indirect cremation, by trying to put too much corpses in a small
cavity, one would only reduce the hot air circulation around the material to be
burned and, as consequence, would actually reduce the speed of cremation, thus,
obviously the productivity of the operation. Not to mention the risk of damaging the
refractory brick lining on such tentative.
Moreover, the laws of thermodynamic can be broken and there is a limit to low the
mass of coke needed to burn a mass of body. Under that point of view it is important
to analyze "real work on real conditions" to establish a realistic cremation's model.
Of course, as the volume occupied by the bodies is the main factor for a load, 2 or 3
corpses of children depending on their size could substitute the volume of 1 adult.
In any case to low the Gusen's average of 28.7 kg to 3.5 kg as seen in some
Exterminationist works is completely unrealistic.
However, we can consider that the period of activity examined on the Gusen's document
is enough extended to reflect consistently a "typical load" in a cremation
installation at a camp with that kind of oven. Under that aspect, the unknown ratio
mass/number of bodies can be considered "integrated" in the resulting average of 28.7
kg of coke per corpse burned with a little merge on uncertainty.
To clear that doubt, a "calibration" is made hereafter by facing that Gusen's
parameter with documented data from Birkenau during the month of August
1943 [#G]. Nevertheless, any new document concerning that matter should be useful to
increase the accuracy of that measurement. At the moment I don't know if more data
are available on the remaining nazi archives.
To avoid the inconvenient of an exaggerated volume of corpses processed at a time by
the operators and to facilitate the load of the muffles, specific apparatuses were
manufactured at the camps like the "corpse charging trolleys, set on rails" of
Auschwitz showed on Pressac's bookhttp://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0154.htm
We can see that the container placed upon the trolley was made on purpose to avoid
the contact between the corpses and the brick lining in order to prevent its
deterioration during the loading operation. At the same time it prevented the bad
behavior of the stokers by limiting their liberty to load too much bodies at a time.
G - Verification of the Gusen's parameters for coke's consumption in Topf's ovens.
References are available to control Gusen's parameters applied to Auschwitz's
crematory installations. For instance, there is a document concerning the number of
deaths registered in August 1943 which can be faced with the documented coke delivery
on that same month at Auschwitz.
1 - The number of deaths registered in August 1943
According with that page from the Pohl's report to Himmlerhttp://www.mazal.org/archive/nmt/05/NMT05-T0382.htm
we can observe that, on August 1943, the mortality at Auschwitz was:
Concentration camps......Average number of inmates.....Deaths
2 - The coke's consumption of the year 1943
"PMO microfilm 12,012 contains the coke delivery notes for the Krematorien (without
distinguishing between them) from 16th February 1942 to 25th October 1943."http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0224.htm
We observe that for the month of August, 1943 the coke delivery notes for the 4
Krematorien in activity at Birkenau, the quantity of coke delivered was
---> 71 tons.
If we consider that 2.380 deaths were cremated* that month, that gives an average of
29,83 kg of coke burned per corpse.
The average I gave above for the Gusen's parameter is 28.7 kg per corpse burned. That
value is remarkably consistent with 29,83 kg deduced from the registers of Auschwitz
in August 1943 related with coke deliveries and deaths.
3 - Causes of variability of the Gusen's parameter
2 parameters can introduce a variability on that average of 28.7 kg:
a - The time the ovens are actually working during the day. The less time the more
coke consumed per corpse. The coke necessary to heat all the mass of refractory
bricks in order to reach the 800-1000ºC working temperature is distributed all along
the total time of work.
b - The number of children among the total of bodies burned. The more children the
less coke consumed per corpse.
However, by considering the reference of August 1943 at Auschwitz, it can be
reasonable to keep on using 28.7 kg per corpses despite it seems to be lower** than
the actual consumption per corpses on "real work".
H - Possible estimation of the number of bodies actually cremated at Auschwitz.
As we have seen, the only consistent parameter to estimate the actual activity of an
installation of cremation is the coke/wood's consumption.
Each time the corresponding data are available, it is allowed to make a good
estimation of the numbers of bodies ACTUALLY BURNED at a camp.
We have some documents concerning coke's deliveries for 1942 and 1943 at the
crematoriae of Auschwitz and nothing about 1944. Maybe something might remain
undiscovered in the Russian archives.
With what we have concerning the coke deliveries at the new 4 Kremas in 1943 (about
802 tons), we can estimate the number of bodies cremated at Birkenau that precise year:http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0224.htm
The average of coke's consumption to burn 1 body was 28,7 kg in the model of Topf's
ovens installed at Birkenau (based on actual Gusen's time sheet**).http://www.holocaust-history.org/gusen- ... ndex.shtml
So, we could establish the number of corpses burned at Birkenau in 1943 around 28,000
to a consumption of coke estimated at 802 tons.
The statistics of deaths for Auschwitz's camps given by the Russian archives are
Total deaths 108,946http://tbrnews.org/Archives/a2617.htm
The number of corpses burned in 1943 at Auschwitz are compatible on its order of
magnitude with the number of deaths registered on the deaths ' books although they
are far away from usual official exaggerations.
With the deaths' books and in absence of further documents concerning coke/wood
deliveries, the following repartition could be made to give numbers of deaths
Remark: It is possible that during some periods the coke was substituted by wood to
burn corpses on the ovens. An equivalence coke-wood has been established by Mattogno
to a quantity of wood consumed at Birkenau.
"a total of 96 m3 (3,390 cu. ft.) of wood was delivered in September and October 1943
[aa], which correspond to about 21.5 metric tons of coke.
[aa] APMO, D-Au-I-4, segregator 22, 22a
As consequence the total number of bodies burned could be increased according with
the addition of wood on the total amount of coke sent to the crematory ovens if no
other application can be proved at the camp.
Then the estimated number of 110 000 bodies cremated could be increased to 130 or 140
000. Unfortunately, fundamental data concerning the coke/wood deliveries to the
crematories of Birkenau during the year 1944 are missing. We hope that the related
documents were not destroyed by the Stalinists and lay on some Russian archives to be
discovered in the future in order to reveal finally a more accurate estimation of the
actual number of bodies which could have been burned at those crematory installations.
* That is not "exact" in fact because of the "buffer's effect" of the morgues but, by
observing the months of July (67 tons) and September (61) the respective deliveries
were not so much different in quantities than for August to introduce a huge
variability on that basis of calculation..
** A predictable result because my calculation based on the time sheet of Gusen was
done considering an hypothetic continuous load which was not recommended by the
I have showed on other posts that the activity observed at the cremation installation
of Birkenau by considering the coke deliveries corresponded roughly with the nominal
activity of only 14 muffles (admitted also by Pressac) despite the number of muffles
installed was 46. That fact is easily explainable because the cremation installation
was planed to a population of 230,000 inmates while the real number actually was
around 67,000. That explains also why the situation at the Kremas was never
considered critic despite the numerous failures of the ovens which reduced
considerably the total cremation capacity.http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0386.htm
I - The application of a standard ratio to plan crematory installations at the nazi
camps including Auschwitz-Birkenau
Ia - The crematory ovens were not equipments specifically designed to
Auschwitz-Birkenau. In fact, since 1942 many crematory ovens (based on civilian
design) were installed at all main camps to satisfy the drastic sanitary measures
required to fight epidemics like typhus by means of the mandatory cremation of cadavers.
Thus, ovens are not the indication of a supposed criminal intention as
Exterminationists want us to know. There were required together with other sanitary
installations for the treatment of inmates' effects (delousing chambers, disinfection
equipment) and for the hygiene like shower rooms and latrines.
The nazis determined the number of muffles to be installed at their camps by applying
a standard ratio of 1 muffle per 4000-5000 inmates to be hosted.
A mere observation of the installations of cremation realized after 1942 at all main
nazi camps allow to verify that nearly invariable ratio and Auschwitz-Birkenau
doesn't constitute any exception on that aspect.
Here is the map of the installations stated by Topf, the manufacturer of the ovens
installed at Dachau, Oranienburg, Mauthausen, Buchenwald and Auschwitz. That very
useful map includes also the ovens installed by Kori.http://www.topfundsoehne.de/images/imghi_053_karte.jpg
Ib - Calculations of cremation ratios observed and respective ovens' installation at
the main nazi camps.
The following list present the relation existing between the planed population at a
camp and its number of muffles installed. The homogeneity of such relation appears
clearly and it can be deduced that the nazis applied a ratio of 1 muffle installed
per 4,000-5,000 inmates planed to determine the capacity of cremation at their camps.
Population planned 33000 inmates
Number of muffles installed: 2x2 + 1+1+1+1 muffles = 8 (Manufacturer Kori)
Cremation ratio observed: 1 muffle per 4125 inmates
Population planed: about 30,000 inmates
Number of muffles installed: 2x2 + 1 + 1 = 6 (Manufacturer Topf & Shoene)
Cremation ratio observed: 1 muffle per 5,000 inmates
Buchenwald: 9,500 inmates in 1942, 37,319 end 43
Population planned: 37,319 inmates (end 43)
Number of muffles installed: 2x3 + 1x2 + 1 = 9 (Manufacturer Topf & Shoene)
Cremation ratio observed: 1 muffle per 4,145 inmates
Population observed: 9,100 inmates (1943)
Number of muffles installed: 1x2 = 2 (Manufacturer Topf & Shoene)
Cremation ratio observed: 1 muffle per 4,550 inmates
Population planed: 19,800 inmates (1943)
Number of muffles installed: 1 + 2x2 = 5 (Manufacturer Topf & Topf & Shoene)[*]
Cremation ratio observed: 1 muffle per 3,960 inmates
Population planned: 230,000 inmates (mid 42)(not included more than 40 sub-camps)**
Number of muffles installed: 2[5x3] + 2[4x2] = 46 (Manufacturer Topf & Soehne)
Cremation ratio planed: 1 muffle per 5,000 inmates
[*] To Mauthausen I have no precise data concerning the nominal population before the
arrival of many prisoners from other camps in 1945.
The low cremation ratio could be explained by the installation of the last 2 muffles
oven corresponding to an increased population to a number greater than 19,800 that I
The Commandant of Mauthausen, Franz Ziereis, said that there were never more than
19,800 prisoners in the main camp at any one time.
[**] Finally, the camp's population never reached that number. As consequence, the
numerous Mexico's barracks planed to the third step of amplification weren't
Te average number of inmates observed was likely about 67,000 inmates and the actual
activity of the ovens corresponded to the nominal operation of 14 muffles if we
observe the actual coke's delivery at the Kremas during the same period.
Is it a mere coincidence if the ratio applied to a population of 67,000 inmates would
have conduced to the installation of 14 muffles by applying the same cremation ratio
of 1 muffle per 5000 inmates?
..Any attempt to deny that Krematorium II was shut down for repair, Kr IV permanently
out of service and Kr V subsequently mothballed comes up against the problem of the
coke consumption for the four Krematorien, which is known up to the end of
October 1943 and which shows that the quantities delivered covered the requirements
of 14 muffles only.]
J - Ovens and crematoriae were not specific to the so-called "death camps".
In fact, as they were mandatory to respect the basic sanitary measures to fight
epidemics, all main camps had installation of ovens to cremate the bodies of the deaths.
A tour to visit the crematory ovens installed at the crematorium of several nazi camps
Terezín Camp-Ghetto Crematoriumhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/ter-oven.html
Dachau Old Crematoriumhttp://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScr ... orium.html
Dachau New Crematoriumhttp://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScr ... ium04.html
Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg Crematoriumhttp://www.scrapbookpages.com/Sachsenha ... Ovens.html
The Buchenwald crematorium was equipped with brick ovens made by the Topf & Söhne
company in nearby Erfurt. This company also made the ovens which were installed in
Auschwitz-Birkenau in June 1943.http://www.scrapbookpages.com/Buchenwal ... orium.htmlhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/bu-oven.html
Mauthausen Camp Crematoriumhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/mau-oven.html
Majdanek Camp Crematoriumhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/maj-oven.html
Bergen Belsen unique muffle.http://www.scrapbookpages.com/BergenBel ... otos2.html
Mittelbau-Dora Camp Crematoriumhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/md-oven.html
Gross-Rosen Crematorium Ovenhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/gr-oven.html
Natzweiler-Struthof Crematoriumhttp://www.scrapbookpages.com/Natzweile ... orium.htmlhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/stu-oven.html
Ravensbrück Camp Crematoriumhttp://fcit.usf.edu/Holocaust/GALL33R/rava19.htmhttp://fcit.usf.edu/Holocaust/GALL33R/rav16.htmhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/ra-oven2.htmlhttp://www.rudyfoto.com/hol/ra-oven.html