First; an intro. by Jacob Apenszlak, basic sponsorship and publication information followed by excerpts.
Jacob Apenszlak: The Black Book of Polish Jewry
The 1943 The Black Book of Polish Jewry (BBPJ) statement on Treblinka assists us in tracing the evolution of our understanding of Treblinka from its earliest manifestations to the version presented by the State of Israel at the 1987-1988 Jerusalem trial of John Demjanjuk for crimes committed as Ivan the Terrible of Treblinka in 1942-1943.
Below are reproduced two descriptions of Treblinka that are found in the BBPJ:
a half-page statement by Dr. Ignacy Schwarzbart, member of the Polish National Council, made on 15-Nov-1942 (the Schwarzbart statement can be scrolled to below, or accessed by clicking on "Schwarzbart" within any links bar, as for example the one above)
all seven pages of Chapter 9 titled "Treblinka," which is identified as an "Official Report Submitted to the Polish Government" (accessible by scrolling down, or else clicking on any of the page numbers that follow "Official Report" within any links bar)
The BBPJ statement on Treblinka is particularly noteworthy for its seeming authority — the book's list of sponsors (click on "Sponsors") includes one first lady, one Nobel Laureate whose name has become synonymous with genius, three U.S. Congressmen, one U.S. Senator, one mayor of New York City, one U.S. Cabinet member, and other notables. Did ever a piece of Jewish-holocaust literature come more highly recommended than this one?
On top of such illustrious sponsors, the BBPJ also lists fifteen members of the Publication Committee (click on "Committee)," five of whom are accorded the title "Dr," and gives special acknowledgement to Abraham Goldberg, former chairman of the Administrative Council of the American Federation for Polish Jews, and following that on the same page lists nineteen contributing authors.
The number and prestige of the BBPJ's patrons and endorsers, together with its temporal proximity to the events described, leads us to expect an account of Treblinka that is superlatively accurate.
MRS. ELEANOR ROOSEVELT
PROFESSOR SALO W. BARON
HON. SOL. BLOOM
Chairman, Foreign Affairs Committee
of the House of Representatives
HON. EMANUEL CELLER
PROFESSOR ALBERT EINSTEIN
HON. FIORELLO H. LAGUARDIA
Mayor of the City of New York
HON. HAROLD L. ICKES
Secretary of the Interior
Editor, The Nation
HON. A. J. SABATH
Chairman, Committee on Rules of the
House of Representatives
Gershom Bader, Sam Berke, Morris Blumenstock, Jacob Brown, Chaim Finkelstein, Dr. Isaac Kornfeld, Jacob Kenner, Mendel Moses, Dr. Simon Segal, Dr. Arieh Tartakower, Dr. Joseph Tenenbaum, Joseph Thon, Benjamin J. Weinberg, Benjamin Winter, Dr. Leon Wulman.
The publishers acknowledge the moral support extended to the publication of this book by the late Abraham Goldberg, former chairman of the Administrative Council of the American Federation for Polish Jews.
Special chapters in this book have been contributed by the following: Aaron Alperin, Jacob Apenszlak, Gershom Bader, Samuel Berenholc, Wold Blatberg, Chaim Finkelstein, Dawid Jedwabnik, Jacob Kenner, George Kowarski, Leopold Lazarowitz, Isaac Lewin, Mendel Moses, Moses Polakiewicz, Henryk Szoszkies, Leib Szpizman, Arieh Tartakower, Joseph Thon, Abraham Weiss, Leon Wulman.
AMERICAN FEDERATION FOR POLISH JEWS, INC.
MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES
DR. IGNACY SCHWARZBART
Member of the Polish National Council
HON. JOS. T. SHARKEY
Vice-Chairman and Majority Leader,
New York City Council
Polish Minister Plenipotentiary
PROFESSOR CHAIM TCHERNOWITZ
Jewish Institute of Religion
HON. ROBERT H. WAGNER U.S. Senator
REPORT OF DR. I. SCHWARZBART
Dr. Ignacy Schwarzbart, member of the Polish National Council, stated in London on November 15, 1942:
"The methods applied in this mass extermination are, apart from executions, firing squads, electrocution and lethal gas-chambers. An electrocution station is installed at Belzec camp. Transports of settlers arrive at a siding, on the spot where the execution is to take place. The camp is policed by Ukrainians. The victims are ordered to strip naked ostensibly to have a bath and are then led to a barracks with a metal plate for floor. The door is then locked, electric current passes through the victims and their death is almost instantaneous. The bodies are loaded on the wagons and taken to a mass grave some distance from the camp. A large digging machine has been installed recently at Treblinka. It works ceaselessly, digging ditches, mass graves for Jews who are to meet their death there. The Ukrainian guards, witnesses of the mass murders, are allowed to keep the money stolen from the victims. These bestial murders sometimes take place in the presence of the local non-Jewish Polish population, who are helpless and overcome with horror with the sight of such inhuman violence."
.THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY p. 141
Official Report Submitted to the Polish Government
The village of Treblinka is situated near the Warsaw-Bialystok railroad line, a few kilometers from Malkinia, in a sandy and wooded area. The population consists of Polish peasant-farmers and forest workers. In 1940, the Germans established a penitentiary concentration camp, Treblinka A, on the sandy stretches near the village, for Poles who were guilty of transgressions against the occupant, of not supplying the demanded amounts of agricultural produce, or who were caught smuggling. The discipline at the camp is very strict; prisoners are shot on any pretext. The camp is as notorious as the penitentiary camp at Oswiencim.
In March, 1942, the Germans began the construction of another camp, Treblinka B, in the vicinity. That camp has become the slaughterhouse for the Jews of Poland and of other European countries. Poles from the nearby Treblinka A, as well as Jews caught in the neighboring villages, were put to work at the preparatory construction. That work lasted until the end of April when the central building of the camp, death-house No. 1, was built.
Treblinka B is situated on sandy hills among woodland. The area of the camp is comparatively small, some 5,000 hectares (about 12,500 acres). It is entirely surrounded by a green fence interwoven with barbed wire entanglements. Part of the fence runs through a young forest in the north. At the four corners of the camp, observation points were placed for the Lagerschutz (Camp Guard). The Lagerschutz consists mostly of Ukrainians armed with machine guns. At the observation points strong searchlights have been placed to light the entire place at night. Observation posts are also set in the middle of the camp and on the hills in the woodlands. The western border of Treblinka B is formed by the rail embankment along which runs a side-track that connects the camp with the main railroad-line. The side-line was constructed in recent months, in order that the trains of transports might be delivered directly to the slaughter-house. The northern border of
THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY p. 142
the camp is formed by the forest; east and south the border cuts through sandy hills. In the area of the camp, bushes form a long stretch parallel to the railroad tracks starting in the north.
A railroad-crossing is adjacent to the side-track; trains with transports halt there. From that barrier there is an entrance to a square which holds two to three thousand persons. The square is fenced in with barbed-wire. On the square, not far from the northern border, there is a wooden barracks. In the south-western corner of the square there is a guard-house with a military post on 24-hour duty. South of the square, outside of the fence, there is a cloth-sorting place (Lumpensortierungsplatz), and further south, there is the execution place for the camp-commandant and the graves of the victims murdered by him. The arrival-square is connected with the rest of the area by an entrance in the north-eastern corner in the fence. From there, a path runs through the woods for about 200 meters eastwards and then turns at right angles to the south and runs along a forest, parallel to the western limit of the arrival-square. This road stops at a large building of an unusual shape: it is an unfinished one-story brick-construction, about 40 meters long and 15 meters wide. (When we received the information concerning Treblinka B in the first half of September, this building was about to be finished.) The Germans began the construction of that building after the action started, probably in the middle of August, with the help of Jewish artisans picked out from among the Jews brought to Treblinka for slaughter. It is significant that the bricks for the construction had been brought from as far as Warsaw, in trucks attached to each transport. The bricks were loaded in the Warsaw Umschlagplatz by Jewish workers. According to the report of an eyewitness, the interior of the building is as follows: a corridor 3 meters wide runs through the middle; there are five chambers on each side; the height of each chamber is about 2 meters; the area about 35 square meters. The execution chambers are without windows, but they have doors opening on the corridor and a type of valve on the outside walls. Next to these valves there are large scoops (they remind one of large vessels). In the walls pipes were installed from which water-steam is supposed to pour into the chambers. This was to have been death-house No. 2.
A path skirts the building and runs along its western wall finally ending at the next building near death-house No. 1. This building is at right angles to the death-house No. 2. It is a brick construction much smaller than the other. It consists of only three chambers and a steam-room. Along the northern wall of this house runs a corridor from which there are doors to the chambers. The outside walls of the chambers
THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY p. 143
have valves (until recently doors which had been changed into valves for utility reasons). Also here a scoop in the shape of a shallow vessel is placed at the height of the valves. The steam-room is adjacent to the building. Inside the steam-room there is a large vat which produces the steam. The hot steam comes into the chambers through pipes installed there, each having the prescribed number of vents. While this machinery of death is in action, the doors and valves are hermetically closed. The floor in the chambers has a terra-cotta inlay which becomes very slippery when water is poured over it. There is a well next to the steam-room, the only well in the whole area of Treblinka B. Not far from the death-house, south of the barbed-wire and wooden fences, there is a grave-diggers' camp. The grave-diggers live in barracks next to which are the kitchen buildings. On both sides of the camp there are two guard-houses. The remaining area of Treblinka B is destined for the murdered victims. A part of that area is already a large cemetery. At first, Poles employed in the camps dug the graves; later, as the slaughter was intensified and the need for more ditches grew, special digging-machines (bulldozers) were brought, which run day and night at grave-digging. A Diesel-motor supplies the energy and its rattle is a characteristic sound at Treblinka B.
The supervisors and execution-staff are small in numbers. The slaughter-house is commanded by an S.S. man of the rank of major; his name is Sauer. The German staff, consisting of S.S.-men, are in terror of their chief. The moment they see him from the distance they drive the Jewish workers as well as the victims on their way to death with even greater energy. Altogether, there are ten Germans and thirty Ukrainians.
The German crew changes from time to time; sometimes S.S.-men from various towns of the General Government who were active at the deportations there, arrive in the camp.
In addition to the German-Ukrainian Lagerschutz, there is also the Jewish auxiliary, part of whom are busy at the sorting place for the clothing of the victims (Lumpensortierungsplatz), and part of whom act as grave-diggers. They empty the execution chambers and bury the dead; the rest work at the arrival-square. The groups of the Jewish auxiliary service are headed by group-leaders whom the Germans call "kapos." They are relatively better fed than the rest and wear a triangular yellow patch at their knees to distinguish them from the others. The personnel of the Jewish auxiliary service undergoes almost daily changes. Rarely can a Jew stand that service for more than two weeks, due to the inhuman treatment they receive at the hands of the Germans.
THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY p. 144
They are constantly tortured and whipped; corporal punishment (25 strokes) is very frequent as well as the shooting of the weak ones who lose their fitness for work. This is done mostly by the chief himself. Every day there is a roll-call. The German asks who does not feel strong enough to carry on with the work? A few men step out of the row, report their unfitness and beg him — as though for a favor — to be shot. The executions take place at a special spot; the victim himself stands erect over a grave while the chief shoots at the back of the victim's head. The next victim has to step nearer and throw the body of the murdered one into the ditch, and then a few moments later, share the fate of his predecessor. These young Jews are so overworked that all will to resist is gone; on the other hand, the German terror is so atrocious that it makes them even want to die so as not to suffer further inhuman tortures. In one of the first days of September, the chief of Treblinka thus murdered 500 young Jews by shooting them one after another with his gun; what is startling is that not one of this group of a few hundred men attempted to resist death. The execution lasted from 7:30 to 3 P.M.
The relatively lightest work in the death camp is the sorting of the clothing of victims. While assigned to that work, one can eat to one's heart's content, for the "deported" Jews took along large food-stocks: bread, marmalade, fat, sugar. But the chief does not leave the men at this work for any length of time; after a few days, he transfers them to grave-digging.
The gaps in the Jewish auxiliary service are supplemented from among the transports arriving in Treblinka. As a rule, two transports arrive daily: one in the morning and one toward evening. In the period of greatest intensity of the action a few transports arrive daily. Each train consists of a few score of freight cars. Some of the cars halt at the side-track straight across from the arrival-square, while the remaining cars are shifted to the side to wait until the first part is taken care of. The cars are quickly emptied. The tortured and excited throng breathes with relief when let out on the square. They are immediately taken over by the Jewish auxiliary guard headed by the "kapos." These give orders in Yiddish. The women and children are ordered to enter the barracks immediately while the men remain in the square. Looking around, they see a high pillar with a poster bearing a large inscription: Achtung Warschauer (Attention, natives of Warsaw) despite the fact that transports of Jews from many other towns of the General Government, from Germany and the states of Western Europe are also brought to Treblinka. "Do not worry about your fate," continues the poster. "You
THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY p. 145
are all going eastward for work; you will work and your wives will take care of your households. Before leaving, however, you have to take a bath and your clothing must be disinfected. You have to deposit your valuables and money with the cashier (of Treblinka) for which you will get receipts. After the bath and disinfection, you will receive everything back unharmed."
In the first period of murder in Treblinka an S.S. officer with a kind, confidence-inspiring face used to come to the square and hold a speech along the same lines. However, when in the course of the action ever larger transports arrived from various parts and the crowds had to be quickly liquidated, the Germans cancelled the speech as superfluous.
To make the Jews believe that actual classification according to trades would take place at the arrival-square in order to send occupational groups for labor, they placed small signs with the inscriptions: Tailors, Shoemakers, Carpenters, etc. It goes without saying that such segregation never took place.
The "kapos" quickly put the men in rows of ten, ordering them to take off their shoes, undress completely and prepare for a bath. Everybody is permitted to take along a piece of soap and his documents. In the meantime the sorting-service men take away the clothing to the sorting-place. Women and children also have to undress completely. Now comes the last act of the Treblinka tragedy. The terrorized mass of men, women and children starts on its last road to death. At the head a group of women and children is driven, beaten by the accompanying Germans, whips in their hands. The group is driven ever quicker; ever heavier blows fall upon the heads of the women who are mad with fear and suffering. The cries and laments of the women together with the shouts and curses of the Germans interrupt the silence of the forest. The people finally realize that they are going to their death. At the entrance of death-house No. 1 the chief himself stands, a whip in his hand; beating them in cold blood, he drives the women together with the shouts and curses of the Germans interrupt the silence of the forest. The floors of the chambers are slippery. The victims slip and fall, and they cannot get up for new numbers of forcibly driven victims fall upon them. The chief throws small children into the chambers over the heads of the women. When the execution chambers are filled the doors are hermetically closed and the slow suffocation of living people begins, brought about by the steam issuing from the numerous vents in the pipes. At the beginning, stifled cries penetrate to the outside; gradually they quiet down and 15 minutes later the execution is complete.
Now comes the turn of the grave-diggers. Shouting and cursing, the
THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY p. 146
German overseers drive the diggers to their work, which consists of getting the bodies out of the execution chambers. The grave-diggers stand at the scoop, near the valves. The valves open but not a body falls out. Due to the steam all the bodies have become a homogeneous mass stuck together with the perspiration of the victims. In their death agonies, arms, legs, trunks are intertwined into a gigantic macabre entanglement. To make it possible for the grave-diggers to get out single bodies, cold water from the near-by well is poured over the mass. Then the bodies separate and may be taken out. As a rule the surfaces of the bodies are not defaced; only the faces and buttocks are purple. The grave-diggers, constantly beaten and driven by the Germans, place the corpses on the scoops until the chambers are empty. The bodies lie piled up like slaughtered cattle. Now the burying takes place. Formerly (during the first half of August), the Jewish grave-diggers had hand-carts to convey the bodies to the ditches, which had to be done at top speed. Lately, however, the chief did away with them. "Ein Mann — zwei Leichen" (one man — two corpses), meaning that each grave-digger has to bury two corpses. He ties the legs or the arms of the body with his belt and running, pulls it from the scoop to the ditches, throws it in and, again running, returns for the next load. Formerly the graves were right at the death-house so that the burying of corpses could take place quickly. As new victims were added, the grave-line moved ever further to the east and the pulling of the corpses to the graves takes longer and longer. After the ditch is filled, the grave-diggers quickly cover the bodies with earth and the digging-machine nearby prepares the next grave.
The execution of the men is identical. They also are driven through the road in the woods to their death. The victims react differently while being driven in the direction of the death-house; some repeat loudly psalms of penitence, confess their sins; others curse God; but a sudden shout of the Germans and the blows falling upon the backs of the doomed men immediately brings silence on the whole crowd. Sometimes all the victims cannot get into the overcrowded chambers; then the Germans keep the rest in the woods near the slaughter-house. These people see and hear everything but there is no attempt at self-preservation.
This is irrefutable proof of the atrocious terror wielded over their victims by the Germans.
The new death-house provides for the liquidation of 8,000 to 10,000 victims. If we consider that right now 2,000,000 murdered Jews, or the greater part of Polish Jewry, are already buried in the area of
THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY p. 147
Treblinka, the disturbing question arises: for whom do the S.S.-men intend that new house of death; who are to utter their last breaths in that slaughter-house? Most probably the death-machine, once started, will not limit itself to murdering Jews. At present, the specter of death in steam chambers rises before the Polish population; there have already been some signs of it: according to a report of an eyewitness, the Germans exterminated a group of Poles in death-house No. 1, in the second half of August.
Killing in vacuum chamber, with steam, or chlorine gas -----from: W. Grossmann, Die Hölle von Treblinka, Verlag für fremdsprachige Literatur, Moscow 1947; The Black Book of Polish Jewry, Roy Publishers, New York 1943.
American prosecutors at the main Nuremberg trial supported the steam story. As proof, a Polish government report dated December 5, 1945, was submitted as prosecution exhibit USA-293. It charged that Jews were killed at the camp "by suffocating them in steam-filled chambers." This report, which says nothing about poison gas killings, was published in the official Nuremberg trial record as document PS-3311. (note 12) An American prosecutor quoted from this report during his address to the Tribunal on December 14, 1945. (note 13)
Hannover @ 'facts' on Treblinka steam chambers & assorted sworn tales
next source: http://www.jta.org/1943/12/15/archive/b ... z2fXQnuUNJThe Belzec camp is underground, an electric crematorium. Here the floor resembled an enormous plate, it sank deep into a pool of water, a powerful electric current of millions of volts killed them all at once. The floor rose again, an electric current burned them until nothing was left, save a few ashes.
- 1946 Eng. ed. of 'Black Book of Polish Jewry',p. 313
more:“black Book of Polish Jewry” Estimates 1,000,000 Polish Jews Killed by Nazis
JTA Jewish telegraph Agency
December 15, 1943
New York (Dec. 14)
An estimated 1,000,000 Polish Jews have been killed by the Nazis since the beginning of the war, it is stated in “The Black Book of Polish Jewry,” which is described by its sponsors, the American Federation of Polish Jews, as “the first fully documented account of the persecutions to which the Jews in Poland have been subjected by the Germans.”
The volume, published today, has been in preparation for a year. It says that approximately 1,200,000 Jews will be found within the boundaries of Poland when the Nazis are driven out, but hardly any of these will be in their original place of residence. Most of them are in concentration camps, labor camps, concealed in hiding places or fighting with guerrilla bands. The “Black Book” covers the period from Sept. 1, 1939 through last Spring when the Warsaw ghetto was liquidated after a lengthy pitched battle between the Jewish residents and regular German army troops.
Besides photographs of scenes of Nazi persecutions of Jews, the volume contains reproductions of Nazi documents, proclamations, posters, etc., and hundreds of affidavits of eyewitnesses to scenes of wholesale slaughter and deportations. In addition there are the complete reports of secret couriers who managed to spend long periods in occupied territory and escaped without detection by means of the well-organized underground system. Publication of the book is sponsored by a board consisting of Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, Mayor LaGuardia of New York, Congressman Emanuel Celler, Secretary Harold L. Ickes, Senator Robert H. Wagner, Polish Minister Sylwin Strakacz and others.
Read more: http://www.jta.org/1943/12/15/archive/b ... z2fXQnuUNJ
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4 ... 2644354641
and still more:
Belzec 'death camp' was underground, Jews were electrocuted
Hannover @ The start of wild Holocaust 'survivor' tales
Informed Revisionist will no doubt have a field day.
Those who believe are welcomed to chime in and tell us why they believe all of this.
Inquiries are encouraged from all.
The tide is turning.