My question to CODOH-Forum members is this:
Q. When, why, and how do you believe "Regime Change in Germany" became U.S. policy?
Timeline of the relevant events involving the USA's moves towards intervention
- October 5, 1937: Roosevelt delivers 'Quarantine Speech,' apparently calling on democracies to fight fascism: "The political situation in the world, which of late has been growing progressively worse, is such as to cause grave concern and anxiety to all the peoples and nations who wish to live in peace and amity with their neighbors. [...] The peace-loving nations must make a concerted effort in opposition to those violations of treaties and those ignorings of humane instincts which today are creating a state of international anarchy and instability from which there is no escape through mere isolation or neutrality." Roosevelt is heavily lambasted by domestic critics.
- September 1939: War begins in Europe.
- September 1939 (with war underway): An opinion poll (Roper) finds U.S. popular support for entry into the war on the British/French/Polish side to be very weak:
- -- 3.5% "Enter War on side of Allies"
- -- 38% "Help the Allies with food and materials" [does not specify which 'materials']
- -- 58% "Strict Neutrality" or "Sell food and materials to Anyone" (these seem to be a distinction without a difference)
- June 14, 1940: German forces occupy Paris unopposed after weeks of steady French retreat and defeat.
- June 16, 1940: Leftist French Prime Minister Reynaud resigns; Marshall Petain succeeds him and announces, by radio, his plan to seek an armistice with Germany immediately.
- June 20, 1940: U.S. "Selective Training and Service Act," to institute conscription, is proposed in the Senate by Senator Edward R. Burke [1880-1968; Congregationalist] (Democrat, Nebraska) and in the House by Rep. James W. Wadsworth [1877-1952; Episcopalian] (Republican, upstate New York);
- July to October 1940: Battle of Britain
- September 2, 1940: "Destroyers for Bases" Agreement between USA and UK -- Fifty old destroyers traded for military basing rights in British Caribbean. "The agreement was a violation of the official neutral position of the United States."
- September 16, 1940: U.S. Congress passes
- October 16, 1940: U.S. bans scrap iron and steel exports to Japan.
- October 1940: Peacetime conscription begins in the USA for the first time in history.
- December 29, 1940: Roosevelt's Arsenal of Democracy speech -- proactive aid program, to include military aid, to Britain and France (what would become Lend-Lease) is proposed -- Strong domestic opposition.
- February 1941: Lend-Lease is up for debate in U.S. Congress. Passes by 373 to 160.
- -- Republicans in U.S. House of Representatives oppose bill by 135 to 24. [15.1% in support of Lend-Lease]
- -- Democrats in U.S. House of Representatives support bill by 238 to 25. [90.5% in support of Lend Lease]
- March 11, 1941: Lend-Lease Act signed into law -- Aid begins to Britain.
- April 1941: Germany invades British-occupied Greece, on behalf of its Italian ally. The campaign succeeds totally in four weeks, marking yet another campaign in which the German 'Blitzkrieg' look unstoppable.
- May 6, 1941: Lend-Lease expands to include Chiang Kai-Shek regime in China.
- June 16, 1941: USA agrees to occupy Iceland to free up British forces (British invaded in March 1940 and had occupied since)
- June 22, 1941: German invasion of the USSR begins.
- August 1, 1941: U.S. government institutes oil and gas embargo against Empire of Japan.
- August 17, 1941: "President Franklin Roosevelt warned Admiral Nomura, the Japanese ambassador to the United States, that the U.S. would be forced to take immediate action to safeguard American rights and interests in the Far East if the Japanese took new military actions in the region."
- October 7, 1941: U.S. Lend-Lease expands to USSR.
- October 31, 1941: One hundred U.S. sailors die in the sinking of the Reuben James, escorting Lend-Lease war material to Britain.
- December 7, 1941: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor followed by declaration of war and invasions of Philippines and Malaya.
- December 11, 1941: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States in fulfillment of Axis treaty obligations. (Japan never declares war on the USSR.)